Michael Casey | Real journalism is more important than ever

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on October 6th, 2019
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I think journalism is more important now than ever. This work is one of integrity, this is a calling that is more important than the bottom line and that there’s a real value for society and people who are dedicated to that exercise in and of itself. There can’t be anything more important. I’m Michael Casey. I’m an adviser to MIT media lab’s Digital Currency Initiative and I’m a graduate of Curtin’s media and journalism school. It was travel that made me realise that I really should try and do what I always wanted to do, which was to write and to do journalism and to shape it in the context of this travel experience. But it really wasn’t until I came to Curtin and succeeded that I felt validated, that I felt that I could do this. I think the essence of journalism is storytelling, and essentially that’s the art form. You’re trying to capture people’s imagination. I really saw the things that I was interested in as being untold stories. Stories that needed to be, that I felt needed to be, told and I wanted to be able to tell that story because they inspired me.I started at the West Australian and then found my way to Indonesia where I was hired by AFX Asia then I moved to New York and ultimately wrote for Dow Jones Newswires and the Wall Street Journal. Eventually ended up as a global economics columnist for the Wall Street Journal. A lot of TV for the BBC, for MSNBC and CNBC, I’ve been an anchor for live TV WSJ Live and also wrote for things like Foreign Affairs and Foreign Policy. The most satisfying thing is to be able to write in a form that has inspired people to try to make a difference in the world in ways that I care about so that’s been incredibly rewarding, yes.

Also the sheets I sleep on help:  .I recommend that you buy sheets from https://bambooforlife.com/sheets .

Students talk about the new journalism department at City University

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on November 23rd, 2020
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my call is Frederick Dawson and I’m a student in surmounts International Journalism okay and so the new district is really really nice like much bigger improvement over our previous equipment up in the other building however they weren’t prepared for her first part expression which provide a lot of problems and evenly like the international students rarely do anything now which is quite annoying we have computer grades but there any other computer labs that are in the aged part of building that don’t have the newest journalism software and most of them are still in labs with lots of cracked computers hinder computers asked why they’re like that no one’s actually being able to give us an answer i’m christopher anderson I’m be a journalism student I recollect the television studio which I haven’t ill-used yet but sorry an exciting and yeah I’m when I’m doing the pole graduate certificate in newspaper it in principle it seems a little nicer liver but yeah things think we should work and that’s still on and likewise vied others would rinse it out so there’s a couple of days a week we don’t happen merely having a central centre to work in means you insure everybody all the time and yeah I’m very much selling busy right now

Journalism | View Nick McKenzie’s story

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on November 17th, 2020
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Theres a whole compas of things you lookfor when someones hiding something. I necessitate it can be as simple as looking at somebody language. Our society is filled with confidentials. People in strength don’t want the public to knowwhat is going on behind closed doors. My name is Nick McKenzie, I studied a Bachelorof Communication in Journalism at RMIT. I’m an investigative reporter with Fairfax Media. RMIT was really a springboard into my careerbecause it gave me the basics of how to be a journalist. Dig hard-bitten, push hard, be fairand honest. All those key things I learned is truly been a part of my vocation and willremain so into the future.What actually drives me I suspects is when thereis vulnerable people. People without a tone “whos got” stood over by the potent and itsour errand as reporters is to give them a tone. I meditate the key to being a good journalistis having a really great sense of interest, a passion to find out whats going on behindthe panoramas. Truth is not a simple concept, details arentfixed in stone. Its about testing knowledge, its about detecting little evidences to builda picture and hopefully that that envision that you tell the public is as close to thetruth as possible. And in no event will I ever ever giveup the resources. My job is to pick opposes with beings, people who deserve it, people whohave it coming. I approximate every day I wake up and know Imheading to work to find out something that the public deserves to know. And if youredoing that everyday you come home at night and its exceptionally rewarding. You collapsein your bunked and you go to yourself Its been worth noting .[ Screen deed] Be true to you CRICOS: 00122 A

The Computer Chronicles – Digital Journalism (1993)

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on November 11th, 2020
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no they haven’t shut down this printing press for good yet Gutenberg is still alive and in fact in just a few minutes this press will be cranking out tonight’s edition of the San Mateo Times but there are some futurists who say that the days are numbered for the printing press that increasingly our journalism will be delivered electronically and not on paper today we’ll venture into the new world of digital journalism on this edition of the computer Chronicles computer chronicles is brought to you in part by Intel microprocessor technology for the software of today and tomorrow Intel the computer inside additional funding is provided by the software publishers association providers of educational materials to help manage software don’t copy that floppy and buy hewlett packard personal computer division welcome to the computer chronicles I’m Stuart Schiff a and with me today is Michael Bradshaw of compact publishing and Michael publishes CNN NEWSROOM on a cd-rom what can I do with CNN on my computer Michael we can explore six major topic areas and global affairs all right so I see the choices I have are suppose I’m interested in the waging peace part of what you have we can click on waging peace and we’ll go down to more specifics more choices and I’m interested in fact in the United Nations so what do I do now we can view a video a stream of videos about the United Nations from CNN news right so you just clicked on that icon and I’m seeing so CNN news file footage here that’s correct what else can I do well that topic is backed up by a variety of text material we could go down and take a look at a text file these are wire service stories newspaper stories on that they’re from around the world all right now I want to do a specific search my interest I really wanted to find out about the UN role in Somalia so how do I do that sir well we called up the search engine here I’ll need to type in some search words putting in the keywords United Nations and I said Somalia Somalia okay and what size database we go through here we’re going through 15 megabytes of text here you found 11 articles and 11 articles rather quickly and there’s my choice of stuff well then let’s go ahead and take this one this one’s from the Paris area so you’ve got international sources going goes real quickly what about the globe part of this I said I globe icon at the beginning what do I do with that well that’s our atlas this provides us a lot of data that supports these news stories that we cover so I could click on a part of the world on the globe and find out information that’s right you can go down through all the countries of the location I have for you is this as neat technology but is there a customer for this does anybody really want to get their news on a computer well yes we’ve actually developed a way of in print and video journalism in a way that’s never been possible before this medium came along so you’re kind of redefining news in a way you said it’s correct story we have all right today we will look at several ways to get the news without reading a newspaper listening to the radio or watching TV now while one of the thrusts of digital journalism is electronic delivery the other goal is personalized news and information that’s the focus at the MIT Media Lab in Cambridge Massachusetts information tailored to the individual me not the masses is the focus of the research here at the MIT Media Lab Walter bender directs the news in the future project which includes work on context-sensitive delivery systems that combine elements of broadcast text and electronic delivery according to the taste of the individual consumer I get a newspaper delivered every day I get the bender bugle delivered to my computer every day I get my personal news on the screen every day I also get the news delivered to my pager and I like having it that way I like getting all those things and I like having the system help me sort out and make sure that right things get to me at the right time adapting the technology to suit the content of the message is a key area of research in this project the salient still special imaging software allows you to collapse the content from four frames of video into one composite still photo we want to divorce the content from any fixed or hard fast representation of that content so that that content can get delivered in a form that’s timely convenient useful to the consumer of the content making sense of the huge amounts of complex graphical information that will soon be available courtesy of the information superhighway will require high-resolution Hardware this is the world’s highest resolution multi-dimensional monitor with a 6,000 by 2,000 pixel display you can for example look at 500 movie images at one time now this is just completely impossible with with the television set today but once computation gets into that television set then you will have options of watching things contextual relief which is to see lots of things at one time so that you can perceptually compare information which is something that’s not possible today for the computer Chronicles I’m Janelle Patterson one of the major factors in digital journalism is the growth of online services telephone delivered data which puts the news on your computer screen here to show us two approaches to online journalism are Bob Engel executive editor with the San Jose Mercury News and Chris hasit of PE D software the makers of a product called journalist Bob I want to start with you and I’ve got today’s San Jose Mercury News right here but you have the paper also online on the computer huh we do have the paper online that’s not the principal mission of mercury Center but the paper is online it’s so it’s really more than just the paper we’re going to take a look at all it’s intended to be deeper information supplemental information new ways of communicating with the editors and and users with each other show me the advantages of reading the murk online then well if let’s suppose you were outside our circulation area or you were in a hotel room on the road let’s say okay so I’m in the East Coast and I want to read the morning murk right you can click on in the news then go to today’s paper and you see that it’s organized in approximately the same way as the daily newspaper you’ve got front-page national/international etc click on national let’s say and you get a listing of all the headlines that are in that day’s paper so one advantage is I can read the paper without physically picking one up without physically picking it up this is exactly the same text that’s in the daily paper it’s there by about five o’clock Pacific Time eight o’clock all right you said I can go deeper than just the paper or show me what’s right well in every area there are supplementary information and for example in this paper right here if I could there’s a story about President Clinton speaking to some Democratic Party people and it says text of Clinton’s speech in 680 guys need to more stuff if I want it on the computer correct so you’d go in here click the inner code key which I got out of the newspaper so you got out of the newspaper and go directly to the text of Clinton’s address to the Democratic Council without having to go through any other menuing sure what else going to do I imagine I can do text searches which I obviously couldn’t do with the piece of paper you can do text searches if you have an interest in let’s say Intel computer and you want to look at just recent articles you can do a text search on Intel and it’s in about three months time you’ve got 106 so I’m not just searching today’s edition in fact I can go three months back well actually you can go all the way back to 1985 if you go into the news library we have there this is a premium service but it’s relatively inexpensive and this is a gateway to our electronic library system that includes everything that we’ve published since 1985 so I can access the same files that your editors or writers could could access correct so let’s suppose you were interested in checking and Intel a patent situation in 1988 you could say Intel and patent and then do a search now this is online to view text in Philadelphia which is another company that we honor so once again just like we saw before with the CNN disc this is kind of the market plus I mean I can do more with this than I could have done just with the paper that’s right that’s right alright quickly who’s using this I mean who’s the customer who wants to pay to do this kind of thing I think at the moment the customer is people who know what an online service is and so we are still in the in the process of skimming current online users but we think that that’s beginning to change now and people who never have used online services are wanting to do this because it is tied to their news paper sure all right thanks a lot Bob I want to move over here and talk to Chris and you have a slightly different approach I guess to online journalism Chris tell me what you do with journalists well journalist is a program which really taps on the information that’s available from online services like prodigy because you’re online with prodigy here it’s actually starting to go online with productivity and what I have defined is my own personal view into the new system okay so this is gonna give me my pour or your personalized newspaper laid out the way you want it laid out and with the content that you weren’t exactly for instance what I’ve done and I’ll zoom in on this there’s no news there actually won’t see much but the the headline here is telling me that I’ve to headline news so that’s the latest news available and this is news that could have happened only 15 minutes ago so this is extremely up-to-date and what you’ll see next to it is the news on business stories latest press releases if I’m a business oriented person I might tailor my newspaper to be more business when we’ve set this all up ahead of time I said I want to see this is the newspaper I want to say this is my newspaper another individual might be entertainment oriented or another individual might actually be oriented towards sports very interested in the latest sports so this newspaper can be customized to your view now what success especially exciting about it is I can schedule this newspaper so that you don’t have to wait for the news I can schedule it to acquire the news every morning for instance I can schedule it to be ready on my printer at 7 o’clock you can automate the whole download layout print process I wake up and then my printer is my version of them exactly so what happened there is the first story came in and I’ll actually zoom in on it so you can read it on on the screen this happens to be the endeavour snatches the Hubble which is something that happened fairly recently pulling the stories online off prodigy automatically squeezing them into the format exactly and of course when you get done when this is done we call it filling or requiring information from prodigy you of course can print this to any printer that’s supported by windows and again I mentioned it can be waiting for you on your printer by the time you wake up it’s now moved on to business news and I can show you the business news article it’s low airfares it’s Christmas time so I imagine that’s something of interest to many people and it will move on to politics news and it not only will pull in text the program is fully capable of using the windows down there down below I’ve actually asked the program journalists to keep track of this happens to be Conner peripherals keep track of its price and over time it stores it in a database that I can get a better view into into stocks that may be of interest to me can we go back and see what’s happening with with the land of the paper okay it should be what its gonna do now it’s gonna tell me what I might look forward to tomorrow as far as weather so you’re putting a color weather map on so this is your own USA Today exactly so this this weather map again is will be in full color so you can get an appreciation for whether you should go to the beach tomorrow I’m just going to take me to download this paper this paper will take about three minutes you’ll see the weather map come in momentarily and then it will move on to the portfolio of stocks that I’ve selected and again these stocks will be updated you could schedule it to keep you up to date every 15 minutes or on a longer schedule and what happens as you say here’s what would finally happen if I got up in the morning and came down to my printer there would be if I were Tyler Tyler’s newspaper with just that’s exactly right is this available for services other than prodigy it is available we currently have a product very similar to this that sells on CompuServe this product will be available in March and it will be widely available people tend to really latch on to it because it allows you to to kind of personally define what you want to look at in news all right thank you all right one of the most promising areas of digital journalism is financial news and one of the first major efforts in that field is the private financial Network it’s a new computer-based news service from CNBC skip Kline is a healthcare analyst at t rowe price one of the country’s largest money management firms and one of about 25 subscribers to the private Financial Network television coverage of financial news and events is beamed via satellite directly to skips PC a companion data service called first call lets him access trading charts and other news about the subject of the broadcast I like it because it gives you know pretty accurate presentation of information that’s going on out there and it’s often in its full form it’s not edited or cut off at you know the end of 30 minutes because they have to go on to a soap opera of some sort they give me the full text and the full information that I can then work with and analyze myself CNBC provides production support a satellite uplink and a portion of the programming pfn crews cover all of the New York Society of security analysts presentations and conferences of interest to financial professionals will cover a number of brokerage conferences we’ve done conferences for Piper Jaffray and Alex Brown Paine Webber first Boston we cover press conferences we’ve done recently the the Viacom and paramount press conference the key Corp and society Bank press conferences we’ll do new product announcements so that’s sort of the nature of our programming the pfn signal can also be fed directly to television monitors such as this one in a trading room at t rowe price to receive PFN on your pc you need an IBM ps/2 TV unit or a video board and a color VGA monitor for the computer chronicles I’m Janelle Patterson the growth of cd-roms and the ability to put full motion video on a PC have created a new platform for the weekly newsmagazine and the television documentary here to show us both are Michael Rogers managing editor of Newsweek Interactive and also Steve Padraic president of media multimedia Mike let’s begin with you and this is Newsweek interactive Newsweek on a cd-rom or as in fact is that what it is is this is this Newsweek magazine on a CD it’s much more of the Newsweek on a cd-rom it does have the last three months in a Newsweek five hundred thousand words all searchable by word it’s available in stores and by subscription it’s got a lot more than that though because we think this is a new medium and we have to create new stories right from scratch and show me what you mean here basically we see this as a blend between magazines television and radio it’s none of those it’s some new thing but it begins like a television show in turn we could sit here and watch this for a while pictures will scroll credits and so forth but unlike TV at any point we can say no and go straight you’re in control you’re in control and go straight to the table of contents now this is more like a magazine we can go around there’s various features here are our two feature documentary one is about special effects one is about health care these are very in-depth pieces because they’re quarterly behind the screens is about special effects we begin with a short piece of video that is from a hit movie of last summer in the line of fire it runs for a while just to give us some idea of this is an example of special effects inside to these special effects that you can’t see but at any point we can go straight to the documentary which begins like a television documentary in Hollywood they call it an X it’s the glue that holds together when I wasn’t watching different we’re a TV that’s right or I can take charm exactly when you hit the explore button it’s the impact it drops you into the text the exact word-for-word text of the documentary you’ve been watching only now it looks like a magazine this is the narrator script isn’t exactly not like a magazine but with additional information the bold-faced words have charts photos you can pull up as much information as you like keep going through read it like a magazine when you’re tired of reading it like a magazine you can drop back into what we call a narrator mode now your the documentary again and it’s like television again added tricks to this is what we’re interested in bass students usual effect since you can’t do on television and you can’t do in magazines I’ll give you an example of a couple other features like that one thing that we’re interested in is interactive video and what I can show you here is a feature called face to face which is in a sense a twenty minute video documentary but cut up in a special way you know I can choose which of these guys I want to talk to or interview in a size we just heard a question special effects not just a job verse a exactly let’s choose stan winston’s why say I want his answers that’s right we click on that Stan comes up characters don’t do and we can keep going through we can ask more questions we can ask the question the twins of the trade second thing here’s an example of an interactive poll we publish polls in Newsweek they’re based on a lot of research but we can only do a few charts and graphs in an issue here draw your own graphs are interested to see the extra success with respect to political parties so you’re giving race your raw data and that’s right my own ground exactly on the fly this is the kind of technology we think it finds digital journalism thank you very much Mike very impressive Steve let’s take a look at what you have here I guess Mike was showing us the news magazine turned into digital journalism you have essentially the TV documentary turned into digital journalism and I guess we’re gonna look at the JFK assassination cd-rom and show me what you can do with this one well what we tried to do was to give you the ability to have both the best of a videotape where you have a linear presentation like what’s on the screen now in an effort to gain votes for the 1964 presidential election so this is like watching the TV show right right what more can I do with this well armed with that kind of knowledge then you can take a look at the films and photographs and begin to analyze it as you might for example it turns out that there were actually four films taken that day in Dallas when President Kennedy was shot and we have the film from those okay so we could take a look at the Zapruder film for example right just click there and not only can you look at it you can look at it any way that you might want you can take a look at a normal view on this a slow-mo frame-by-frame can do it the full screen whatever you might like is what are we going to see here using a Bell & Howell the real time exactly Abraham Zapruder captured you know if I want to really study this frame by frame I can do that yes you’ll probably click the frames button here and then after comes on you can actually have the ability to you see the frame counter in the corner but beyond that you can move the counter and pick the frame I want exactly like if you want it to move it to somewhere close to the assassination of the frame of the moment yeah right all right so what else can we do I see you have lots of other options up first yeah you can actually take a look at zoom in views you can see more text information you can actually learn about the film or you can go back to the main menu and look at some other information okay assuming this you have one of the nice things about it is we actually tried not to take a point of view in this title at all for example we have a number of analysis which were basically animations done these were all done especially for this product so again you’re showing the three different views on what really happened right we’re in Commission conspiracy House Committee pick your point of view right okay so show this one do you pick the conspiracy for example all of the animations on this screen take those assumptions no we’re done huh so if you were to click on say it’s a sniper’s nest view you see what would have didn’t seen from there all right you’ve clicked on that one icon and we’re gonna now see the view that might have been seen by an assassin aiming at the presidential limousine the numbers in the upper right hand corner correspond to frames and is approved obviously a lot more powerful than just watching a TV show right certainly more you can stop and rewind it or even just watching a tape I mean you can really dig inside here and did you say take a different point of view this is not just Oliver Stone but you want it all right what else can we do here well it’s actually kind of funny that you mentioned Oliver Stone because we also have a lot of information based on text for example I think it’s essential that you have the complete text to the Warren Commission in this but the crossfire book which the Oliver Stone movie based on text so the Commission report write a lot stuff in here also so if you simply click there you get a menu of all the major table of contents click on save the assassin and you learn more about that you can actually scroll through so if you want to read this all online you can do so but what I think most people would rather do is find tell me about the depository building simply click on that hotspot and you see a photograph of mm-hmm alright so we’re at where else can I go well once you go back to the main menu if you’re fairly young and you really don’t know a lot about the topic what are the nicer features is the ability to look at Dealey Plaza map for example we have hundreds of photographs can go to the film and photo map and you can take a look at what it would look like from this point of view this is actually Dealey Plaza yeah and you can even zoom in on this which was positioned at the end of the motorcade passes the stuff now who do you see is using this kind of thing and this is very deep very rich I can say if you’re an assassination aficionado you know you’re gonna play with this I mean what other kinds of things are you going to do what other kind of titles would you come out with in this format well the same kind of format anything which people are very curious about that can actually be explored in a number of different detail levels one of the things that I think separates the title like this from some other ones is that you don’t need to know a lot about the topic you can begin with the introductory overview and slowly won’t go into the detail most people are never going to read the Warren Commission this verbatim but if they wanted if you want to do research you might have to go to the library it’s right on the right you have really an unlimited depth range which is something it’s only possible with the cd-rom technology really is a new definition of journalism I mean there’s stuff that never existed before Society thanks so much well that is our analogue look at digital journalism stay tuned now for this week’s computer news on random access in the random-access file this week hewlett-packard has introduced the world’s first microprocessor with multimedia capabilities built in the new PA 7100 LC chip is a RISC processor that can handle digital images video and digital audio without any external Hardware the chip will support both the MPEG and jpeg standards HP says the chips will be used inside its new HP 9000 and HP 3000 systems as well as in new land server products Intuit has jumped onto the software freebie bandwagon and is offering trial copies of Quicken for only an $8 shipping and handling charge the demo version is a full copy of Quicken but it limits you to a set number of accounts and transactions the trial edition of quicken is available by calling 1-800 6 2 4 5 0 7 1 and if you’re worried about importing quicken files into chip softs TurboTax it should become easier than ever Intuit has announced the acquisition of chip soft as a wholly owned subsidiary continuing the trend toward mergers in the tax and personal finance areas Mac week magazine and the San Francisco Examiner report that Apple is set to launch its own online service in competition with prodigy CompuServe and America Online no official word from Apple yet though the examiner says Apple will officially announce the new online service at the upcoming Macworld Expo in San Francisco will have a complete special program on Mac worlds coming up in a few weeks the first two international version of Apple’s Newton message pad is now being sold in Germany Austria and Switzerland the German language version of the Newton comes bundled with a 2 megabyte PCMCIA card loaded with sample applications all this Corporation has announced a new division to create software for interactive multimedia publishing the new division is called the interactive publishing products group the new software will allow you to create and distribute electronic information including sound video graphics and text all this launch the desktop publishing category in the 80s with its innovative page maker program and finally the latest battle over sex and violence and computer games is focused on a new PC game called the Battle of the Robo babes when the characters covered in armored battle each other and their male dominators for freedom if the Robo babes don’t win with violence they try more seductive strategies the game comes from a company called mega tech which already got into trouble with an earlier computer game called Cobra mission that’s it for this week’s random access for the computer Chronicles I’m Janelle stelson

Data Overload: Data, Journalism, & COVID-19

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on November 5th, 2020
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So again, welcometo the webinar. My name’s Todd Wallack. I’m expend the year asa Berkman Klein Nieman fellow at Harvard and I’ve beena data journalist at The Boston Globe for about sevenyears, as well as an investigativereporter acting both with the BostonGlobe’s Spotlight Team and the rest of the newsroom. Caroline Chen covershealth care for ProPublica, and she previously was areporter at Bloomberg News. Armand Emamdjomeh is agraphics assignment editor for The Washington Post, and he was previously a deputy director ofdata visualization at The Los Angeles Times. And I was provoked tohave this group of people talk about the issuesthat reporters face dealing withdata because we all have some different expertise. I’m sort of a generalistlooking at data trying to find, mine it for all sortsof types of storeys. Caroline is more of aspecialist in health care and will have more expertisein health care data. And Armand has lots ofexperience in visualizing data.And it seems like there’s beentons of interest and challenges in looking at COVID1 9 data. Parties have been trying totrack it by era and time to see trends and whether it’sgetting worse or better, as well as geographically. But there also have beena lot of challenges, such as handicaps tryingto obtain the data. So you’ve seen a lot ofheadlines about that, particularly at a locallevel, or getting more details on the data, suchas on race or senility or other detailsabout people affected.And questions about the accuracyand reliability of the data. ProPublica and The NewYork Times and others have written a lot ofstories raising questions about the accuracyand the challenges equating one country to anotherbecause of difficult deviations in who’s measured, howaccurate the tests are, how accurate fatality countsare, and other issues. So I’m going to start byasking a number of questions, and at about 12:35, will switchto questions from the gathering. So feel free to start tossingin questions as we speak. And about halfwaythrough, we’ll start going to audience questionsand finish at 1:00. OK. I want to startoff just by requesting Armand and Caroline, what data are you understand books most interested in? Could I hop-skip in now? I remember early on thequestions were just where is the disease spreading, right? So I thoughts certainly, especially in the US, as the virus firststarted to punched, everybody just wantedto know case tallies. And then I think thatstarted to soon overlay with a concern about deaths.And so I think that continuesto be of interest, cases and fatalities. And then I would say whereare the tests and testing abilities, testing capacities. And I remember now there’s anunderstanding that there are two types of tests. There’s the diagnostic tests. Those are the PCR, the swab tests. And now the newincoming antibody measures. And I belief the moresophisticated readers are starting to gain anunderstanding of what do the numbers symbolize aswe’re starting, just like right now, this week, starting to see studies comeout with some digits around these antibody studies.And there are alreadyfurious debates around those study resultsand whether or not those are meaningful. So I accompany those aslayering, right? We continue to want tocare about case weighs. And we continue to wantto care a lot about extinction and you know, segmentation of those. So demographics and raceand who are being affected. And these are layering as we go. And Armand, what have you seen? Yeah, I completelyagree, obviously along the same linesof that structure. It has been casecounts and where there were reported cases andreported outbreaks, you know, demises. And now, I conceive the one thingI can add to what Caroline said, is there’s been interest in thetrends that are being reported by states as well. So we’ve earn steps toshow what does this data look like over day, of coursenoting the caveats in the data and how it’s being reportedand recorded by the states. Oh, and I forgot tomention, of course, there’s the wholeconversation around supplyings, PPE, ventilators.It’s obviously been very hard. That’s always a movingtarget depending on whether you’re talking alocal level, national level. You can never place a nailon how much PPE there is at a rendered hospital, regime, but there is always interest in that question of renders. And I’m also inquisitive abouthow easy or difficult has it been to obtain allthe data for your stories and graphics? I can talk about that. I anticipate, you know, thedata at a national level is basically nonexistent. Most things are reportedat the territory stage, so that makesmeans know you have to either rely on an aggregatoror aggregate the data yourself, you are familiar with, going to all thesedifferent state sites, figuring out where they report it, howthey report it, in what format.Also noting that this data, what the states are reporting, likewise changes over timeand what programmes they’re using to report it. I is sending out a tweeta few days ago that was like, what if youwere reporting a live ballot, but you were building yourrig for reporting the research results as the election was happening? And what everywherewas reporting as the resultswas also changing, and they were changing howthey report it as well. So it has been extraordinarilydifficult in that sense, to build things thatdon’t constantly crack, and construct dataflows that are actually kind of stable, given the factthat what is being reported is moving under them as well. Yeah, I would say that thereare certain things that, only by the natureof the pandemic, are going to beconstantly changing.So for example, testing capacity. I’ve done a lot of reportingaround testing and testing capacity. And simply by the natureof what’s happening, that is changing perpetually. So whether that’s nationally, whether that’s locally, if you’re trying tosay what is the testing faculty of mystate, that count is going to beconstantly changing. And it should be, right? Because we have been constantlyramping up testing ability. So for any reporter totry to get a beat on that, on trying to informtheir regional books, they’d have toconstantly update that. Is it possible toactually get an accurate number at any point in time? I think that istechnically possible, but your number’s going to beoutdated like within an hour, even at a specific lab. So I have, atcertain points, been able to be like, Inailed the amount. It’s already old-fashioned. Is there any pointin even doing that? Yeah, I think there is.It’s a deserving exerciseto try to get a ballpark and to move vogues for readers. So there have beentimes where I’ve tried to do that forspecific legends, but it is afrustrating exercise, and I’ve reallyencouraged other reporters to truly try toexplain to readers where you got this number, whathas gone into this number, and how long of a shelf lifethe multitude will have, and truly try to show yourwork to your readers more than I ordinarily would. So I think some ofthat is inherent.There are other things, though, where you can only your report is only asgood as where you get it from. So for example, the WHO putsout daily situation reports. That is the onlyway you can really get a source for internationalcase countings, right? But the WHO’s information isonly as good as the countries from which it comes from.So I remain repeatedlyexplaining that is something that people, that the WHO has arecommended way for what they count as a positive occurrence. And they say thatit is if you research positive with a PCR located evaluation. For the longest time, Chinajust decided that they were only going to count as positivesomeone who had a positive PCR test and manifestations. They were not countingpeople who had a positive PCR case but no evidences. So they weren’t countingasymptomatic instances. There’s nothing theWHO can do about that. There’s nothing anybodycan do about that. And then after a while, trying to change that. So you needed to knowthat about China. And I convey, that’sdeeply frustrating. You can’t get everybodyto report the same way. And you need to have thosecaveats in your reporting. And this also percolates down tolike 50 territories, or 56 states and countries, all doingit in their same highway as well. Right. That’s got to draw comparisonsreally ticklish, when everyone has a different way of reportingthe data, tracking the data.There are differentrules on who gets researched and what gets counted. It sure does. And again, I thinkyou can only be clearly defined the caveatsof this is entirely dependent on what’sbeing reported and how it’s being reported. Yeah, I’ve been very, verycautious about comparings. Got it. And are there any other problemsyou’ve noted in the data that people should be aware of? I have been very careful or I’ve been encouragingreporters in my newsroom and trying toexplain to the public precisely are well aware of what thedefinitions are of numbers that do thrown around. So one thing, forexample, I’ve been trying to explain a lot tolay readers is what actually is the fatality rate, right? And there’s a big divergence, I suppose, between what the public wants to know, which is, you know, if I get infected will I die, and what is reported as thecase fatality rate, right? So the speciman fatalityrate is the number of reported demises divided bythe number of lab confirmed infections.So everybody knows in theUS, it had been really hard it continues to be reallyhard in numerous places to get tested inthe first place. And a lot of places arenot experimenting unless you’re really, really sick. So that denominator isgoing to be much smaller than the actualnumber of infections. So extremely early onin the United State, the lawsuit fatality ratewas something like 10%. Because we just weren’ttesting a lot of people. And “youre thinking about” itas an iceberg mannequin. Like, the deaths areusually the easiest to find and count, especiallyearly on in a pandemic. This always happensin a pandemic. And the people who areasymptomatically fouled are the hardest to findin the first place.But again, theaverage lay reader, they just want to know ifI get infected, will I die? And they’re lookingat that count that’s been reported in yourheadline, and they’re just looking at that and beinglike, if I get infected, that’s my luck of dying. And “were having” such a hugeresponsibility as reporters to explain that number andnot just throw things around in headlines. So I think there are alot of numbers like this. As a science andhealth reporter, I feel like we have alot of responsibility to explain to parties, so that are not and are. These are the rate ofinfection, the probability you have of infectingother parties, the average number ofpeople you’ll infect. It’s a process ofunderstanding, and this is what I’m trying toget across to my books. There is so much we are stilllearning that we don’t know yet, and we cannot presentthis as set in stone. And building on that, mentioning all cases being kind of a difficultfraction to divide against.Like, the deaths numberalso is slippery. We’ve seen tales highlightingthis in recent dates, and it’s beensomething we’ve been various kinds of saying for a while. It’s like not everydeath is being accurately categorized extremely. Recently New York Cityadded some what was it? Like 3,700? I forget the exact number ofdeaths that were classified as probably COVID1 9. And you are familiar with, if it’shappening in New York City, probably there issome fraction of cases that’s being categorizedthroughout or never even recorded. So that number isslippery as well. And I study when talking aboutfatality rates and that kind of thing, rather than justtalking about one big-hearted multitude, we’ve been trying to, whenwe have the data available, to at least break itdown a little bit better into segments of thepopulation or report the comorbidities thatstudies have been reporting. So it’s not like a flat 3.2% or whatever it would be.It depends on alot of factors that are related to the individual. It unquestionably soundschallenging when there are questionsabout and uncertainty about both the numeratorand the denominator when you’re tryingto calculate frequencies. My sense is thatthese are problems that data reporters, andjournalists in general, encounter whentrying to get data. It’s often hard toget one clean database at a national levelor global level, where often aggregating itfrom lots of different places.And each lieu mighthave different ways of counting the numbersand reporting the numbers. And the data can be messy. Is there anything differentthat you’re finding in dealing with COVID1 9 data? Or does it reflectchallenges you’ve faced doing other types of floors? This is more theoretical. But you know, thesenumbers are being reported by states and by countriesand everywhere very precisely, but in the specific nature, it’sa unusually imprecise weigh. So there is thisweird situation. You know, inaccuratebut precise is one type of data classification. And I think that’swhere we are now. It’s like you’re throwing you’re taking shotsat a dartboard, and they’re all disembark in avery precise, same same lieu, but you’re off somewhere. You’re not actuallyhitting the dartboard. It’s like somewhereoff of the wall because you’re propelling thedarts various kinds of blindfolded. But we have very precise tallies. Yeah. One thing I’ve seen, and I predict my I know this is areally hard thing to do, peculiarly if you havean editor that’s pushing you, is to resist the implore to write.Because what I do see isthat health agencies, as they liberate data, are refining as they become. And I think this is becausethey are also figuring out what they need to release. So for example, to givea very specific example, New York City startedout by render test they were onlyreporting by burrough. And then a lot ofpeople were like, well, that’s not enough information. And they were gettinga lot of criticism. And then theystarted releasing it wasn’t fairly by vicinity. It was by this very strangenot quite zip code , not quite vicinity. It was percentage ofpositive, but they didn’t have any fresh counts. There were no numerator, no denominator. It was percentage. And I was like, well, Ican’t is everything with that. Because if you say that inthis zone, it was 66% positive, that could mean that youonly did three tests there, and two people tested positive.That’s meaningless. But I did examine somenews organizations write a story on that. And I was like, that’sa bit perilous. And then, I thinklike within a week, they then rereleased crowds, who the hell is by zip code and had numeratorand denominator. They had acces more information. And then you could writea more meaningful story. And then New YorkCity has continued to update anditerate and make more and more granular information. So I do think that there isa benefit to kind of waiting. Because I’ve seen, more than I’ve ever seen before in any otheroutbreak I’ve flooded, sort of healthdepartments iterate as they entered into with the datathat they’re releasing. And I actually realise, because this is happening across the country, actually reporters, I recall, be able to push healthdepartments and be able to say, hey, you are familiar with, Ohioreleased this information.Florida, why aren’t youreleasing the information obtained? And be able to sort of pushdepartments off of each other. And I think in asimilar theme, I think it’s really sometimesdangerous to write a story off of a preprint. I do think it’s reallygreat that scientists are, investigates are moving quicklyand sharing information on MetaArchive andbioRxiv and not waiting to go throughthat whole process. But then it’s notpeer reviewed, right? So this positions you in areally dangerous position as a reporter to haveto write a story off of a nonpeer reviewed study.So I recall one of mygoals is to never cause a preprint walkalone, as in you don’t write a story on apreprint by itself. You try to let it go inconcert with other studies and look for a trend. Or at least let parcels andlots and a lot of people comment on it, and don’tjust write a story on this. So this is happening rightnow with all these antibody studies, right? Like, Stanford putout its preprint on its antibody serosurvey. And there were alot of storeys that got written really quickly.And then in the next day, therehas been the critique ripple of like, was it a good sketch? Was it biased? You know, all of that material. And I precisely wish thata lot of reporters might have waited a little bit. And now there is theLos Angeles serosurvey. And I think you could havemaybe waited and obtained a bunch of thesestudies and maybe done one careful story inone exit, or at least gotten a lot more outside voicesthan you usually would before writing that one story. Because they aren’tpeer reviewed.So you do have to treatpreprints differently. Right. And interestingly, ofcourse , none of our essays are peer reviewed. So I’m curious whatprocess you go through to make sure that your owninterpretations and analysis are sound before publishing. I merely move preprintsby space, route more people than I ordinarily would. If something’s alreadypublished in a journal, I know that it’s gone throughthat peer review process. If it hasn’t been, I will runit by a lot more outside experts than I commonly would andjust go that additional mile and certainly ask myself, doI have to write this now? Can I wait for it to go throughthat peer review process? And you can ask the author. Sometimes they’llsay, oh yeah, this has already been accepted byJAMA or The Lancet or whatever. And that gives me an extrameasure of confidence. If that’s the case, that’s helpful to know. And if not and it’s like, thisis such an important study that I need to writeabout it right now, then I get all thoseoutside voices.I try to get numerous independentoutside utters that are from a number ofdifferent institutions, get all their essays. And if everything of them arereally, truly negative, then again, I haveto ask, why am I writing about this studyin the first place? The rail just gets so muchhigher if it’s not in a journal and hasn’t gone throughthe peer review process. And I accept, Caroline, even when ProPublica or The Post or othersare doing their own analysis, we do the same thing. We go to outsideexperts and say, here are the numbersI’m forecast. Does my technique make sense? Is there a good explanationfor these conclusions? Instead than only postingsomething on Twitter or throwing it onour website, we first ordinarily talk to professionals first. Yeah, precisely. And you are familiar with, there’s a bitof self analysis in here too. Like looking at whatwe call data flavors. Does what’s in the dataquestion your basic assumptions? Does it evidence an opposite trendto what you’re expecting? Are there big gapsor negative prices where there shouldn’t be? It’s kind of like sanitychecking the data as well.And similarly, I knowthere are questions about different simulations thatorganizations are exercising. A heap of people are looking atthe University of Washington model. It has a website that’svery easy to use, predicting when crests are goingto be for hospitalizations and other issues. But there are lots ofother poses it seems, and there arequestions about what variables go into each model, how the numbers are calculated. And they can produceconflicting ensues. So that has to bechallenging to deal with. Yeah, so I did a entire columnon foreshadowing and predictions earlier on, which was partlyfor reporters and partly for the public.And I review, again, the question really is, who is your audience? And who are you writing for? And I try to keep thatat the back of my attention. Because I think there’sa difference now. If you are writing forreally a lie world, again, you have to remind them, is this an estimation? And I spoke to, forthat particular pillar, I was talking toan epidemiologist. And I said, you know, Iwas reading this sentence that somebody had writtenabout their particular example. And I said, it seemedawfully specific, where they said that thismeans that in New York this was back in early March that last week there were, it was something like 1,583 to 2,000, blah blah blah. It was like down to the digitnumber of people infected. And I was like, Iread that sentence and I feel like it givesa lay public this sense that you can be thatprecise and calculate down to a single digit howmany beings are polluted. And for me, as awriter, I would never hold that stage of precision.Because it signalssomething to a reader. I would round and usethe words around. And I said, what does this sayto you as an epidemiologist? And it was reallyinteresting because she said, I like seeing thatsort of precision. Because from oneepidemiologist to another, I can then go and redohis pose and made to ensure that our digits accord precisely. So it’s very useful fromone researcher to another. But I agree with you, fora prepare audience, that’s not the send we want to send. Because I said, what is the takeaway you would want fora lay audience? She said the takeaway I wouldwant a dispose audience to hear is it’s not 400 andit’s not a million. You’re in the low-grade thousands. So really, that’skind of the question that I always when I’mtalking to someone who’s doing pose, I say, what is the takeaway you would want for a sit audience? And certainly, shesaid with simulations, you need to be thinkingin orders of magnitude.And I are of the view that ourresponsibility as reporters is to then say, OK, so I’m goingto give an orders of importance type of number to my readers. Got it. And I’m also curious, are there any mistakes that you accompany a lot of peoplerepeatedly attaining that flaw you? One I visualize all the timeis people say, oh, there are still four millionpeople experimented, as if there’s been four million evaluations. But some of the testsrequire multiple samples. Beings could have beentested multiple times. So there are different lists. I likewise recognize “theyre saying”, oh, there are this many cases when it’s number of approved occurrences. And there are other studiesshowing there are probably many times more peoplewho’ve been infected but haven’t been tested.Yeah, the one that you justmentioned, Todd, I think is the one that I’veseen most often merely in talking with peopleand hearing that like, oh, this region had just been five suits. It’s like, well , no. I want, yes, but no. That is just beingwhat’s reported and what’s being imparted, being reported by the states. And again, that comes backto what Caroline was just saying about thisprecision, implying that we know there are 526 disputes in this county in Illinois or something. But maybe that’s on us too.I know the instinctis to try and report the data to the granularitywe have available. But maybe there arebetter ways in that we do report thedata that suggests more of this imprecisionabout the data. And that’s something I think wecan expect ourselves and address as we try to puttogether these pages that are tracking the spread ofthe disease or whatever. Another one is justpeople being exposed to types of scales andvisuals that they’re not used to seeing. So like, we’re interpret alot more logarithmic scales than we’re used to. And they don’t show things you know, rise doesn’t lookthe same way on a log scale than a linear scale. But if you’re looking at it andthink you’re on a linear scale, then you might think thingsare declining or dropping out when actually, that isvery much not the case. Yeah, I ponder, Todd, you pickedup on my biggest pet peeve, which is people not payingattention to sections, right? And I’ve kind of been this has been my soapboxrant for the longest time.It’s like please, try toget your contingents in beings. Because I consider, again, that iswhat readers be concerned about, right? They see a milliontests, and they think that that is a million people. When you say, we’re rollingout hundreds of thousands of experiments, they are able to automatically thinkthat is a million people who can get tested. And depending onthe type of testing, this is absolutely confusing. Like the CDC test, youhad to divide by two. The Abbott test, the rapidtest, it is one test per person.So depending on whichtest you are doing, it is a different equation. And it really is areporter’s responsibility to figure out what theheck is being said. And it is a way for, frankly, for officials to inflate lists. And it’s the onlyway to really get an apples to applescomparison, is if we get a testing capacity in people. And so I think that’s ajournalist’s responsibility, to always get theunits in people. That lane, we can compare stateby state, country by country. So I do think thatthat is a mistake well, a mistake, orI see a confusion that annoys me when I see that. And yeah, I thinkjust not explaining that everything should belike, this is a reported number of deaths orreported number of cases at this phase intime, as Armand said.I think those are really common. I contemplate too just this is more philosophical is just presumingwe know things. I predominantly see this franklyon Twitter and on Tv, but time this air ofwe know what to do. Like, if this statejust did this, then we would solve the crisis. No. Nobody knows what to do. We have only known this, like humanity has only known this virus since January. Well, I make, in China it wasa little bit earlier than that. But in the US, we haven’treally known it that long. And every time I diginto this, whether it is on genuinely understandinghow it is transmitted, or I recently was doing a lot ofreporting on doctors struggling to understand how bestto use ventilators, how to best treatcritically ill cases. Everybody is struggling todo their best by patients and to reallyunderstand what to do. And so I think there are noeasy rebuttals in this crisis. And I think you can give I think this is afailure of communication both by our officialsand too actually, by journalists, when wemake it sound like there is an self-evident or easyanswer, and failing to acknowledge that, to a certain degree, we are all still learning.And so that riles me, wheneverit comes across as like, well, obviously. That sounds good. Why don’t we go to questions from the audienceare starting to pile up. One that’s been upvoted themost is from a Berkman fellow, BaoBao Zhang, who wonderedhow you feel about nonexperts weighing in with their ownanalysis on Medium or Twitter or elsewhere andnonjournalists. And not all of those peopledo what journalists do, which is going to expertsfirst to vet their conclusions. I emphatically definitely sounds like, youknow, it’s a free civilization. And that’s what platformslike Medium exist for. So you’re specifically citingTomas Pueyo’s The Hammer and the Dance. I think it’s fine ifpeople want to publish, and I think that they definitelyfind their own audiences.I do think that thingslike that sometimes are I believed they attain theirown publics, basically. I had a lot of beings actuallysend me that specific post and be like, I cannotunderstand this. Can you write a version thathandholds a little bit more? Because I judge thepart where oftentimes, professionals who areexperts in their arena, whether they’redata scientists or I see this a lot, wherelike, a clinician or somebody will be writing. They tend to use a lot ofjargon and don’t break it down to the degree thatI tend to try to do. And some people do it. Some people are fantasticcommunicators naturally. But I think that’s a bia. I tend to see a lot of jargon. And so I think thereis a place for them, and then I thinksometimes, the drawback is that I think they’renot trained to be able to use the language thathelps them reach as many parties as they are unable to and to giveas much context as, I consider, a reporter wouldknow how to do. That’s my off the topof my manager answer.That’s good. There’s also aquestion about how do we deal with issues wherewe publish an article based on data, and thenthe data mutates, or the information mutates. This probably comesup all the time with health carestudies, Caroline, where a new study comes thatcontradicts a past study. Or a study’s been retracted. So how do we deal with this one? People are still passingaround the old-time essay or plot based on old-time, outdateddata and information. Yeah, oh. What a ordeal it is rightnow with developments in the situation. So one thing that I amdoing now, even more so than I ordinarily do, is I am aggressively dating my information.In my fibs, onmy sentence, I’ll say like, this happening, asof Wednesday afternoon, according to the Associationof Public Health Labs, the US had a testing capacity ofa million research as of Wednesday afternoon. Because literally byThursday morning, the digit is changing. So I try to tag as much ofmy information as possible. I’m associating a lot moreaggressively than I naturally do and likewise adding thedate and age impression. So whenever whoever comesalong to my sections sees that information, they will know as of when thatinformation was true.So regrettably, some people are not going to read that carefully. But at least the timestamp will be next to that. So I cannot go back andupdate my essays constantly. But at least the informationthat somebody speaks will have a timestamp next to that. So I think that’s probablythe best thing you can do. And then yes, update as “theres going”. And I make, again, this is where the language that you useat the time you write also helps you write. Because I too say uselanguage like, at this time, scientists understandthis to be x. So when I wasworking on a tower about asymptomatictransmission, there was a lot of languageI had in there which was like, asof now, scientists understand that whatever. So again, there’s a dateat the top of my article. I’m exercising a lot oflanguage that suggested I’m giving you the best ofunderstanding at this time.And then I’m alsolinking to studies and putting languagein that’s like, as of this interviewthat I did on this date, “its what” I was told. So I belief all of that incombination, hopefully, even if a readercomes along later, will know that thatwas information that was current at the timethat I wrote that essay in. And I think that’sthe best you can do. Yeah. And from a datastandpoint, we can either build our sheets and appsto plug into live data that updates, so that youare seeing updated data as of the times stamp at the top ofthe sheet or right on the chart or whatever. Again, we try to betransparent about when that data is updating. Or like Caroline says, wecan improve it statically, with like Illustrator, orjust save it as the static SVG and is therefore necessary to perform very clearthat this is data as of x.Otherwise, we’vebeen in situations when we’re tryingto publish a storey, and we just have to keepupdating the charts like five times because thedata hinders changing as we’re writing the fib. Yeah, and othermore subtle things. So ProPublica normallydoes certainly long, sort of deep diveinvestigations. And actually, oursocial kinfolks are used to really retweetingour storeys forever. Because we often are doingsuch long, retrospective investigations that youcould retweet our storeys like two years fromnow, and there’s no reason why somebodycouldn’t speak them again later. And we’ve completelyreconfigured that. So they no longerwill retweet a floor because they knowthe information could be totally old-fashioned. So even thinking about that, like your social approach. They will check in and be like, can I still tweet this history from our main account? Is that datum still brand-new? Like, thinking aboutthat kind of thing. And then apparently, if there’s some really major new information. Like for example, if Ihad written a whole column on asymptomatictransmission, and there’s some really major informationthat’s really relevant to know, I will introduce an update atthe top of that story.So being select. Both good points. Next question is fromEva Wolfangel, who’s a Knight Science Journalismfellow, who queries about the fact that researchers often tryto communicate uncertainty, and I suspect there are twochallenges journalists face. One is how to communicatethat same uncertainty. And then there’salso the question, do we weaken our own storiesand reporting and data when we communicate that indecision? Or are beings just going tosay, oh, it’s an estimate.It has such a wide range. It has a margin of fault. You can’t really rely on it. So how do you dealwith those challenges? I intend, I try to conveythat in describing the process of science, right? So really to give avery specific example, in the line I was working onon asymptomatic communication, there was a part where I talkedabout how new studies has been demonstrated that viralload is actually higher at the start of thedisease, course of disease for COVID1 9, which means thatyou could be more contagious even before manifestations started. But I went out of my behavior toexplain how this is unexpected because for COVID1 9′ sclose cousins, the coronaviruscousins SARS and MERS, you were most epidemic, you are the highest viral onu, in the middleof the course of disease, when your manifestations were highest. And I picture justexplaining that, which would be why yournatural presumption would be the original presumptionwas that COVID1 9 would behave the same way. It’s something that anyreader understand better, that naturally, you’dlook at historic frameworks, and you’d expect it tobehave the same way.And I anticipate trying to explainthe process of discipline cures, and I feel like Ijust over explain. And I belief showingthat skepticism, or even just sayingthings like I really was working on astory about ventilator abuse, and I had a cliniciangive me a number. And then he calledme back and was like, you know that number I “ve given you”? I know you detest this, journalists hate this, but it might modify. And I was like , no , no , no. That’s fine. That’s fine, and Iappreciate that you wanted to clarify that. So then I just supplemented aline, a very short line, saying he added thatit’s early days, and more informationwill be gathered. And I think that’s fine anda good indicator to readers that more studiesare going to happen. So I definitelyfeel like there was still highways for columnists to indicatethat for their books. And from a visualstandpoint, in terms of how to communicateuncertainty, look to the annual discussionevery hurricane season about how to plot thelikely path of a hurricane. It’s like visuals. You want to givesomebody something to look at that tries to conveythe data as best as possible.And I think in the case of thisoutbreak, the best we can do is work that into thechatter and the headline around the chart, the annotations. Say that it’s reportedcases or approved bags or reported deaths. Try and communicate theuncertainty in what’s around the chart, ratherthan the numbers, which are what’s actuallybeing reported and what we actuallyhave to chart.Got it. And I want to take on aquestion by Saul Tannenbaum, who queries about questions raised byCOVID skeptics, who will often point out when we report deaths, argue that they’re over counted or there are no COVIDdeaths, in extreme cases, and say, well, they’re reallydying from a heart attack. Or they’re reallydying from pneumonia. Or they’re dying fromsome other cause. And yes, they testedpositive for COVID, but that wasn’t necessarilywhat stimulated their fatality. How do you deal withthose types of questions? That’s interesting. I think that I don’t know that that’s auseful debate right now, right? I fantasize all you can dobecause I think you can have that debate at either intent. Because then you get intothe debates on the people who are dying at home. Did they die of COVID? Did they die of not COVID? How do you thencount the people who are the excess impactfrom COVID because they died at home because theydidn’t want to go in for help.You know, I think there areso many twirling questions around demises relatedto COVID that are going to be so hard to untangle. And I reckon as reporters, the only thing you can really do is just be really straightand truly flat and is just like, here are the numberof people who died with a positive COVID test. And just leave it at that. And then here are the numberof people who died at home, and here is how it comparesto the number of people who died at home lastyear at the same time. And show that gap ifyou are able to get that quantity from your country. I merely don’t knowthat those debates are really helpful orgetting into those weeds and trying toparse that is going to get anywhere at this object. Because you are eligible to have thatsame debate about the flu. Like, so and so hada positive flu assessment, but did they die of theirunderlying health? Their pneumoniacame from the influenza, but they also had diabetes.What does that necessitate? I simply don’t know whereyou’ll get with that. And it reminds me ofafter Hurricane Maria, when they started anddid studies of what did the excess mortalityrate look at in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria? I worked on the homicidereport at The LA Times for several years. And the LA county coroner, ifsomebody was shot and then died like, say, 10 several years later ofcomplications from that gunshot gale, like eventualhealth blows, it’s still ruled ahomicide because they died because of complicationsfrom that gunshot wound. So this is not justsolely restricted to a COVID 19 debate. It’s just mortalitystatistics in general. Right. Another questionthat came up is, what is the most reliablesource for COVID1 9 data? I think there are at leasta half a dozen sources of aggregated nationaldata and a couple roots with world data.Armand, is moving forward. Yeah, most reliable is the key. I make, Johns Hopkins hasreally been putting tons of work into aggregating asmuch data as possible. You can take a move throughtheir issues list on GitHub precisely to kind of get an ideaof the publication of petitions this has generated. Of course, the World HealthOrganization and then I believe a number ofmedia organizations, including us, are also tryingto aggregate at the US level, like country data and province data. I can’t tell you whichis the most accurate. I would say justfor US case tallies, we principally useJohns Hopkins data. We long ago gave up on theCDC, which is very unfortunate to have to say that. But they don’tupdate on weekends, and they are like 24 hoursbehind on their weekday revises. So we use Johns Hopkins forjust our daily case counts. In periods of testingcapacity, we chiefly point to The COVIDTracking Project.International, sometimes, depending on what it is, WHO or JHU. But again, it reallydepends on exactly what you’re trying to get at. Got it. And of course, sometimesfor terribly regional fibs, there may be onlyone possible beginning of data coming froma county or come a infirmary or somewhere. And actually, going to yourlocal health district instantly is probably goingto be the most up to date information, which willbe even faster and more up to date than going to asite like JHU, frankly. want to try to clarify. There Is too issues and questions from [? magna ?] Cheney, whose a Nieman affiliate, inviting aboutthe best practice for archiving tales. So Caroline, youmentioned having a date stamp can be one way.Yeah. The Guardian doesthis thing where they have a warning up reallyhigh, where “theyre saying” like, informing, this story islike more than a year old-time. Or they have some sortof very visible warning up high-pitched, which I alwaysappreciate whenever I see that. So that could beone way to do it. OK. Michelle O’Neillasks, what can we report that’s meaningfulwithout having the basic data that we want? And I guess that comes up withwhen we want to say, you are familiar with, what countries? Where are the hot spots? Or how is the US doingversus other countries when there are all thesequestions that we’ve brought up about how many beings areactually polluted given the differences in testing, and how many people have died given differences and weighing. And because of all theseuncertainties with multitudes, it must be really challengingto figure out what we can really say with confidence. Yeah, agreed. I think we need to attain basicassumptions or readjustments when we can, you know, fordenominators that don’t exist or for other things thatwe don’t consider reliable. Like on our sheets that register thedata that we know about cases and demises throughoutthe country, instead of normalizing, we’re looking at like known specimen perpopulation of the state, per person of the area.But again, we have to beclear that this is all precisely based on what’s being reported. OK. There was also aquestion with, what do you do when you don’thave data or intelligence, or you have conflictingdata, so you can’t be sure? Do you merely avoidwriting about it? Or do you write aboutit as best you can? It’s certainlydifficult to constitute graphs when you don’t have data. Well, I do thinkthat there is value to used to describe the lackof information, especially when you are interested in, say, yourlocal state bureau is keeping information thatshould be public, right? So I think thatthere was, early on, a lot of goodjournalism being done about the need fordemographic information, about who was beinginfected, right? And now we’re getting a lotmore of that info, which is pointing outbig problems in who is being infected. So I has not been able to dismissthat as a possible for where you startreporting on exactly the absence of good message, which can actually spur change and get you theinformation that you then want.Great. So I think we just havetime for one last-place question. Gina Pavone notes thatthere’s talk of using an app for contact marking. There’s a projectat MIT for that. And there’s also been storiesbased on cell phone data that’s been liberated. And Gina wondershow columnists deal with aspects ofprivacy or reporting on the challenges ofreleasing that data and using that typeof sensitive data and impelling the topicaccessible to a mass public? Yeah, I make, I thinkthis is a hot topic across a lot ofdifferent countries, a lot of different localities.And I conceive one, really understanding the nitty gritty of how it’sgoing to be used is important. I think there are a lot ofthink articles about these apps right now that I’mseeing, which ask a lot of philosophical andhypothetical questions. But I envision road fewerstories that really get into the innards of howthey’re going to be used, which would actually help answersome of these suppose segments. So I think that would beuseful journalism to be done. It’s much easier to be like, well, what about privacy? But then you don’t actuallyknow what’s going to happen. I consider the otherquestion though, which was raised with me, wassome public health professionals that asked, how is thisgoing to actually intersect with the existing publichealth infrastructure? Because if there are a bunchof people who have downloaded an app and it’s not talkingto public health officials and not helping themdo their actual employ, that’s also useless.So this needs to fit intothe existing public health ecosystem. So I think there’s alot of good reporting that can be done around that. And then again, this needsto fit into existing testing capacity. There’s no extent in havinga great contact tracing app if you then can’t testpeople and find out who is sick in the first place. So there’s a lotof questions about do we have a veryshiny glancing object that doesn’t mesh with theactual worlds of needs? And I think helping peopleunderstand, your readers, actually understandhow this app needs to fit into the actual workflowof continuing the virus.All of those things can behelpful to your books. And then eventually, also just like the mathematics of howmany beings would actually need to downloadthe app for this to be useful in achievingwhat it needs to do. Because there isa minimum number of people who need to havethe app for a contact discovering app to work. Got it. Thank you so much better. Thanks for the panelists. And for everyonewho tuned in, there will be a recording availablein a duet dates on the Berkman Klein Center event page.And there’s also goingto be a quick poll survey at the very end. So thanks again forArmand and Caroline, and thanks for everybodywho is watching ..

The Future of News, Journalism, and Journalists Lecture 1/5

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on October 30th, 2020
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difficulty with a good opening is your you’re doomed to at this station only peeked and it’s downhill from there what I’m going to do in the next 40 hours or so hopefully leaving at least that much time for discussion with you is provision a quick drawing of what’s going on in the world of journalism why it’s going on and what that connotes about what the journalism of the 21 st century needs to be or what the hell is as citizens expect of our next publication half fifty percent of all the classified advertising that existed in newspapers is now gone and the rest the other fifty percent is likely to be going the next five years a hundred percent classified advertising starting why because monster calm and realtor.com and all these other coms which frankly the word industry could have developed and didn’t our access are provided a superior style to get that information and you had in immense craigslist which is a free mas mailing free classified lesbians person to person and that revenues disappeared that’s one part of the other part of it is that the interface that we have as consumers with word is very different online than it is in print or smart in photograph you open up the information remember you say okay I’m waitin until to be informed about what the Providence Journal is going to tell me today this on page one they settled that on sheet two oh look there’s a half sheet ad from sleepy-eyeds gee I wonder what behet dresses that got on sale and and what’s very clear from the research is that the advertising that beings see in a newspaper is another form of content and they like to interact with it they can choose to look at it or not and often as those of you who are where the newspaper didn’t know that push is very detailed it’s got a lot of information in it costs exactly how long that auctions going to see last how many of you know that Jo our computer 99 it’s got you know give you make 20 got everything online we all huntergatherers for bulletin and information and Google in what you’re looking for and you find you search through the links that look like that are going to get the closest to answering your question or when you eventually click on that one you really don’t want to talk about that to happen right at the moment you’re going to finally look at the narration that you should take up to 45 seconds to on down to instants to intention and you’ve finally got to the good stuff that’s the story you require yikes what’s that get that forward off my material delight so the boundary that we have with advertising is very different and what’s the claim this figure plunging so much well advertisements in newspapers toils immense when you’re in the one newspaper in municipality and you can charge a lot and that’s the only way to reach people but there’s no dearth of websites and so even if my websites got a lot of traffic there are a lot of other websites that cumulative so I can’t blame her in fact I can charge you less and less every day per clink per user for an online so what we need to understand is that the audience to the too many traditional story of institutions is actually originating the notion that the newspaper is a dying industry because no one wants to read it so that’s actually not the public to the brand-new york seasons today is the largest it’s ever been and it’s grown in ways that include 10 years ago or 15 years ago in newark epoches those 1.2 million emulates everything ok now there’s a thing announced pass along psyches and all the certain material figure out how many parties predict the brand-new york seasons in the course of a week there’s a lot of math you do but mostly come up with a number that maybe seven or eight million people different beings written your time is saying the price of a week or a month 15.6 million different beings use the new york epoches website every month so regardless you look at it they’ve probably redoubled the total universe of books predict the New York Times with their website that’s terrific privilege that’s back the near Times has got bigger reaching more ask what type of minutes that were then so what’s the problem the problem is they determine ninety percentage of their income from the book edition part of the shrinking they reach only ten percent of their income from the interview and they can’t figure out a acces to move that sighing it’s stopped from because of the situation is going on the only place were the internet where internet advertising is really flourishing and is really successfully this is in search advertising why because before you get to the content you’re looking for the content you’re looking for goods and services you’re looking to be answered or something and the search ads pop up and they’re like another form of content or like other they’re just like the links are looking but that’s happening at the different levels of research that’s happening at the regional teenager or young and by the way to shape that work you have to have a huge amount of market share because those exploration ads are animals pinless pennies that’s why Google is very successful because it has two thirds sixtysix percentage of all the search the United Government goes to move that’s why they make money Yahoo which restricts twenty percentage of rummage in the United District is a company in tribulation because that amount of market share is not enough given the price of search engines search advertising the ga the companies flourish yahoo is a corporation in hurt that beings to be bought or incorporate or something so the prospects now for the story business to survive are frankly that it needs to invent a new revenue machine for the 21 st century that is not advertising if journalism is going to survive in many ways it was a happy accident that in the 20 th century a commercial-grade undertaking announce subsidized a civic good journalism it was not really true in the 19 th century that’s on her journalism mismanagement journalism for the most part was a partisan activity and the website and when the newspapers were controlled for most of that century and most of American history until the mid 19 th century as as loss leaders for parties we began to see a period of time in a little flatter permanent institution when newspapers could start some fund really from circulation it was really in the very end of the 19 th century and then business advertising became the source that finance journals and what’s happening now is that is disintegrating that is going away and it’s increasingly clear I things clearer today that was a year ago certainly much clearer that was three years ago that advertise online is never at least in the forms that we think of it as never going to be enough to subsidize journals

Proving a sequence converges using the formal definition | Series | AP Calculus BC | Khan Academy

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on October 24th, 2020

In the previous video I territory claim that this streak here it can be determined by explicit assigning in a way that the frontiers of the row I can write it as minus 1 to the power of n plus 1 on n. This is one path to characterize a number explicitly the frontiers of this, when n tends to infinity, is similar to 0. Like she looks like this. n is getting bigger and bigger and bigger, although the numerator fluctuates between minus 1 and 1. It seemed to be coming smaller and smaller and smaller. But I haven’t proven it like that i want to do now in the video. To prove it, it would be true if exclusively if for each epsilon greater than 0, has a principal M that is greater than 0, Where if a little n, if the index were higher than the main M, then the nth member of the succession is in accordance with the epsilon range for the limit, within epsilon of 0. What does this convey? This means that our limit is 0. Let me write it in a brand-new coloring. Our limit here is 0. This is the limit. The restraint here is we say that the sequence is convergent to 0. We say that if we are given an epsilon around 0. Let’s say this here is 0 plus epsilon. This is 0 plus epsilon. The behavior we described it now, it looks like epsilon will be 0.5. This will be 0 minus epsilon. Let me sucked it a little clearer. This is likely to be 0 minus epsilon. We have negative epsilon, 0 minus epsilon, 0 plus epsilon. The limit in this case or our statement about their own borders is 0. This is to say that for each epsilon, we must find such M, where if n is greater than M, the interval between the sequence and the boundary will be less than epsilon. If the distance between the sequence and the border is lower than epsilon, that is, the cost of the string for a returned n will be within these two restriction. It must be in that range now, which I colors over a definite n. Therefore, if I select n to be here, it seems to be anything bigger than that will be the case in which we will be within these limits. But how do we prove it? Let’s just think about what it has to happen for that to be true. What must be true to be a with indicator n minus 0, the absolute evaluate of a with indicator n minus 0, to be less than epsilon? This is another way of saying that the absolute value of a with indicator n must be less than epsilon. and with indicator n is right that now, so this is another way of saying the absolute appreciate minus 1 to the power of n plus 1 over n must be smaller than epsilon, which is another way of saying because this is minus 1 to the power of n plus 1, this numerator is simply replaced by a negative one and a positive edition of 1 over n. But if you calculate the ultimate ethic of that, it will always be positive. This is the same as 1 over n, as the absolute importance of 1 over n must be less than epsilon. n will always be positive. n starts at 1 and goes to infinity. This evaluate will always be positive. This signifies the same as 1 over n it has to be less than epsilon for this thing to happen here to be true. Now we write the reciprocal on both sides. If we make the reciprocal on both sides for an inequality, we will have n if you make the reciprocal on both sides of an inequality, you exchange his ratify. For this to be true, n must be greater than 1 on epsilon. In essence, we have now proved it. We said that for this particular number, if you give me some epsilon, I will i knows where to find M which is 1 on epsilon. Because if n is greater than M, which is 1 on epsilon, we will know that this will be true here. That will be true. So their own borders obviously exists. So here, for that definitely epsilon it seems that we have chosen 0.5 or 1/2 for our epsilon. As long as n is greater than 1 over 1/2, which is 2, so in this case we can say that if you gives people 1/2, M will be a function of epsilon. This will be determined for each epsilon that is larger than 0. 1 on 1/2 is over there. I’ll prepare M be here. You learn, this is really the case, in which the array is within the range, when passing through any n larger than 2. For n equivalent to 3 it is in the series. For n equivalent to 4 it is in the straddle. For n equal to 5 as it continues. We proved it now. We did the proof. If you give me any other epsilon, I said M is equal to 1 on this thing. For any n greater than this, this will be true. Therefore, this is definitely the speciman. This sequence is similar to 0..

Journalism: Feature News vs. Hard News Writing with Dale Rice

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on October 18th, 2020
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[ music intro] MEGHAN: Howdy and Welcome back to WriteRight, Today we are talking with Dale Rice, Director of Journalism Studies now at Texas A& M, about significant differences in hard news and peculiarity story writing. What is feature writing and how is it differentfrom hard news? DALE RICE: Well in general Id say in journalismyou can basically say that true narrations fall into two categories. They fall into the hardnews list, or they fall into the feature category. The hard news are those storiesthat are covering the events that are taking place out there. Feature tales are muchmore either playing off that or are recreation, droll, or life divulging various kinds of floors. Good examplesof feature kinds of writing: music, the arts, movies, menu, leisure of all kinds, manner. These are all things that parties have a great deal of interest in but may notbe the most pressing issues of the day. And so you turn around and look for ways to writestories about those things that are interesting, fun, engaging.MEGHAN: Okay, well when you write a featurestory dont you go about it in a much different mode? DALE RICE: Of direction both narrations are goingto have all of the basic facts. Theres no doubt about that. But the basic news story, youre going to concentrate on getting those essential facts high in the fib and beingvery direct with beings and getting to the point quickly and clearly. In the featurestory, you have an opportunity to have far more varied writing styles. And its notjust that you can play with one particular style however dozens of writing stylesthat you can use in feature writing, and it gives you a chance to, I reckon, have moreof an individual voice as a writer.It gives you the opportunity to play with languagemuch more. And, one other aspect of feature writing is that the vast majority of featuresare not written on a daily deadline. You have more duration , not only to work on the languagebut to work on the storey anatomy as well and to be addressed the room in which youre constructinga story, and where in the tale do you want to reveal the key element? Do you wantto save things for midway through or even important details for the end? You have thatkind of opportunity in story construction to say ah, I might not want to reveal all, I might want to keep this almost like a puzzle and divulge the most important thing rightat the end. MEGHAN: Now, an intro for a feature storycan be much different than a hard news story? DALE RICE: Yeah for the feature narratives, youcan get a lot more into anecdotal writing and explanatory writing and spend a lot moretime setting the background than you would do in a hard news story. So thats a bit of thereason that you have so many different approaches that you can take in a feature story.Youcan really hone in on somebodies figure, somebodys personality, the kinds of thingsthat really wouldnt come to play in a news story, right? I entail really how the personlooks, or how the person or persons behaves, or what theyre personal situation is, seldom contributesto whats happening in the news story, unless of course theyre a serial executioner thatscaught and then youd go after all of that sort of thing, or a casualty. But, for the mostpart when you have people who are involved in government, for example, discussing thebig issues of the day, what theyre wearing to the press conference is just not important.But in a feature story that entire appearing thing might in fact be the first three orfour sections of your storey as you try and establish every little detail about how somebodyis appearing and behaving during, for example, a news conference. So if you were writinga feature story about the same event you would take a particularly very different approach to it. MEGHAN: In hard news you are expected to grabthe book with a captivate contribute and hand the facts as quickly and clearly as possible.In a feature story you get the opportunity to use description and detail to entice yourreader.Your interviews can be more indepth and can focus on how people feel about anissue rather than just what happened. In Dale Rices Media Writing I and II students getthe opportunity to practice writing both feature and hard news fibs. In our next bout, Dale Rice will discuss ways to approach sensitive or difficult interrogations. Thanks for listening to this episode of Write Right, well “ve seen you” next time ..

How Journalism Education Applies to Food Writing – Sarah Simmons

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on October 12th, 2020
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what parallels in journalism and cooking do you find more interesting and how your career is developing you know you learn in journalism it’s writing to your audience and whether you’re writing you know you’re straightup journalism in writing you know a factbased article or you’re you know putting an editorial spin on it and writing creatively you know both of those i’m exercising i’ve been writing articles for bone appetit and you know working on my personal blog you know it’s even up you know it’s even applicable for me when I’m writing a recipe because you’re thinking about it in areas of what ordering should things come in you have to write a leadin to the recipe that draws someone care about what you know and you’ve need to show a reasonably draw it’s about build a container and so you know initially when I are of the view that I was going to pursue newspapers I you know I learned those skills and so now I simply draw on those skills when i’m approaching something whether it’s an section or just simply writing a recipe you

Journalism Master Class: Victor Figueroa on going from student to teacher

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on October 6th, 2020
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( to class) So when you go into that Phillipes folder. You go into now. That’s how you get back all your material.( to camera) So I came to USC from NYUwhere did my undergrad. They have a great radio program here and at NYU, you know, it was a great school and everything. But it didn’t have much in terms ofradio and that’s what I’ve been wanting to do for quite some time. This Mastersof Science program used to be a twoyear program Master of Artistries for Journalism. Andthey had a oneweek boot camp. Not the full month, like what they have now. That would’ve beengreat. Last-place year is when I firstly started actually learning students how to useAdobe Audition. It was part of my work for Annenberg Radio News which is anoutlet here. You never genuinely feel like an adult until you’re out of school. And nowit’s like I’m schooling these people who are basically my age. A parcel of parties mostly wait acouple years to go into grad school. I “re coming” right after undergrad. These peopleare are my age. And it feels strange but at the same time its kind ofgratifying. I don’t feel out of place that is something that. I feel like I actually belongand I should be the person to teach these girls Adobe Audition. The boot campseems to be really planned. Last year it was three weeks to give that extra week; which is really, I speculate, helping the students realize, Alright brace yourself! The hard stuff is coming now! And I think they’re just assimilating it better.So thatwhen they do go into the media center when years do start, they have a betteridea what exactly they are getting into. I get I get a level of realization because I like itwhen I see that person, like, it clicks in their thought that they get it. I merely remember me being them. I get the fulfillment where it’s like, I wish I would’ve had grownup Victor to educate me Audition. Learn to utter mistakes and try to teach yourself to fix them byyourself. Too, Google is your best friend ..

Arts Journalism | Short Course

Posted in Home Furnishings, Local journalism, Uncategorized on October 6th, 2020
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My call is Helen Nugent, I’m a journalist, I’ve been a journalist for 20 years. I currently teach musicjournalism at Salford University. My career has been jolly varied, I workedat the times in London for 10 times, across a number of capacities including lorrycorrespondent, news editor and reporter, and I’ve worked pretty much for all thenational newspapers and a lot of trademags. This is arts journalism, thiswill be taught over the course of one day and will be useful to pretty muchanybody. You don’t have to have a background knowledge, but undoubtedly astrong interest in the arts would definitely be an advantage. So on thiscourse we’ll be looking at the different kinds of artworks journalism, so musicheritage, skill itself, theatre, literature. There will be practical aspects, including writing some reviews and looking at feature opinions, and too someadvice on how to slope to editors and most importantly how to forge relationshipswith pr’s in service industries.